Managing life in a modern metropolis is an extremely difficult task for municipal authorities. Ecology, transport exchanges, crime are only global problems. The daily life of citizens is capable of poisoning the failures of public services, congested parking, ice on the roads – thousands of little things, taking up time and nerves.
With the help of human intelligence comes intelligent city technology – the means to digitally process all kinds of urban information, enabling effective decisions to be made to optimize human habitation.
Smart City’s core technologies
Smart City is a term that emerged at the end of the 20th century when it became clear that without computer technology, it is impossible to solve the painful problems of overcrowded metropolitan areas. The main problem at that time was ecology, so the first concept of Smart City was the idea of a “garden city” – a multifunctional, self-contained residential area.
The economic crisis of 2008 led to a rethinking of the tasks: the concept of a Smart City began to include the need for competent planning of all aspects of municipal life: economy, transport network, public services, health, education, environment and public safety. During this period, the technologies of the future appeared, making it possible to re-evaluate the processes of urban life and steer them in the right direction :
1 BIG DATA is the processing of voluminous data. This technology has been widespread since 2008. It has made it possible to collect and process all the data that determine the life of the city. The information is obtained by sensors, video cameras, temperature and air quality sensors, all sorts of devices capable of transmitting environmental information. The source of information for BIG DATA is also new technologies – the Internet of Things and social media. The key to Big Data technology is knowing how to process large amounts of heterogeneous information. Forecasts based on BIG DATA allow municipal authorities to make decisions not “by the poke method”, but according to the actual situation and the possible ways of its development. The automation of emergency response systems allows you to instantly get the information you need from the data center, to get to the rescue in time or to do the necessary urban work. The 112 emergency service, for example, will quickly determine the victim’s location, and the hospital will have no problem processing their medical documents. Snowplows will be sent to the areas most affected by snowfall, etc.
2 INTERNET OF THINGS – Internet of Things (IoT) builds intelligent networks on the Internet to connect objects to each other. On this basis, you can synchronize their activities in different situations without defining the work program of each thing individually. The transition to the IoT took place in 2008-2009 when the number of things using Internet-connected sensors exceeded the number of living users on the network. The Internet of Things has its stages of development: an intelligent subject, an intelligent house, an intelligent city, an intelligent planet. In the “smart city” stage, sensor-based devices and houses are combined with intelligent systems, with their help at traffic lights to monitor road activity, car navigators place roads without traffic jams, lanterns are lit at dusk and only in the presence of people, and crowded ballot boxes signal the need to empty. Smart meters for water and electricity allow you to keep track of resource consumption and find ways to save them.
3 The digitalization of cities is the creation of a digital twin of the urban environment. Based on information concentrated in the Data Center’s cloud storage sites, a computer model of the city is created, which will allow its problems to be studied in all their aspects. The efficiency of all city services – police and transport, energy and utilities, health and education – will be visible in the palm of your hand. The digital model will help municipal authorities to see the escape points and direct resources and efforts to the right places.
The introduction of 5G technology, the fifth generation of mobile communications, will give a boost to the formation of smart cities. A powerful telecommunications infrastructure will ensure the development of the Internet of Things.